Articles
Vaccination Referrals from ED Paediatric Antimicrobial Guidance Children’s Services Resolution and Escalation Protocol Blunt Chest Wall Trauma/Rib Fractures Information for Parents Carers of Children Having Investigations in Relation to Unexplained Injuries + Consent form Bruising and Injuries in Babies and Children – Parents Leaflet Multi-Agency Protocol for Injuries to Non-Mobile Children Flowchart for children attending Galloway Community Hospital (GCH) for NAI Follow Up Skeletal Survey Flowchart for children attending DGRI for NAI Follow-Up Skeletal Survey Cognitive Function Conscious Level Kidney Biopsy Complications Parenteral Iron for Non-HD CKD Patients Fracture Management Guidelines (Paediatric) Fracture Management Guidelines (Adult) Management of Hypertension in Acute Stroke Prescribing for CAU Patients Still in ED Hypothermia Deactivation of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Myeloma Croup Care Of Burns In Scotland (COBIS) Paediatric Guidance Management of Epistaxis Sore Throat Differential Diagnosis Dizziness Differential Diagnosis Peritonsillar Abscess/Quinsy Acute Tonsillitis Acute Mastoiditis Otitis Media Otitis Externa Extravasation of IV Amiodarone WoS Paediatric Drooling and Aspiration Guideline Palliative Care – How to Refer Eating Disorders Stroke Care Warfarin Anticoagulation for AF, DVT and PE Molnupiravir MyPsych Foundation Doctors Toolkit Paediatric Febrile Neutropenia Guidance PAEDIATRIC HYPOGLYCAEMIA MANAGEMENT in NON DIABETIC CHILDREN   Paediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Guideline Child Protection Policies and Procedures (D&G) Management of Acute Behavioural Challenges in Adolescents and Young People presenting to Secondary Care Cancer of Unknown Primary Patients Returning from Interventional Cardiac Procedure Treatment of Malaria Discharging Patients on High Dose Steroids Sotrovimab Paediatric Ketone Correction Guideline Insulin Correction Factor Table (Paediatrics) Management of uncomplicated Henoch-Schonlein Purpura (HSP) in under 16s Management of Hypoglycaemia in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Newly diagnosed diabetic – not in DKA (Walking wounded) Proton Pump Inhibitor Guideline for Neonatal and Paediatrics Stroke – Post Thrombolysis Neonatal Guidelines Gentamicin Prescribing (Paediatrics) Management of Anaphylaxis (Paediatrics) Management of Prolonged Seizures (Convulsive Status Epilepticus) in Children Bronchiolitis Acute Wheeze or Asthma in Paediatrics Conscious Proning Covid-19 Basics Remdesivir Thromboprophylaxis Identifying Patients in the Highest Risk Groups Steroids for Patients with Covid-19 Infection IL-6 Inhibitors – Tocilizumab or Sarilumab Baricitinib Paxlovid (Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir) Influenza A Inhalers for Adults with Asthma Standard Operating Procedure for AMU Trigger Finger/Thumb Osteoarthritis of the Hand/Thumb Mallet Finger Ganglion Dupuytren’s Contracture De Quervain’s Tenosynovitis Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Prescribing Advice on Admission – Clozapine Prescribing Advice on Admission – Methadone/Buprenorphine Prescribing Advice on Admission – Corticosteroids Prescribing Advice on Admission – Items Not Prescribed by GP Prescribing Advice on Admission – Patients on Chemotherapy Regimes Prescribing Advice on Admission – Medication for Parkinson’s Disease Prescribing Advice on Admission – Insulin Prescribing Advice on Admission Medical Emergencies in Eating Disorders (MEED) Gentamicin & Vancomycin HIV Testing Guidelines Metabolic Syndrome Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD) Greener Inhaler Prescribing C4 Predischarge Beds Handover Safe and Secure Handling of Medicines Blood Glucose & Steroids IV Fentanyl & Morphine for Acute Pain in Adults Assessment & Management of Acute Pain Hospitalised and Has Coronavirus19 Infection (No suspected Viral Pneumonia Syndrome) Hospitalised Due to Coronavirus19 with Likely Viral Pneumonia Bi-Level NIV S/T Guidelines for CCU Phase Bi-Level NIV S/T Guidelines for ED Phase Adults With Incapacity Premenstrual Syndrome Pelvic USS Boarding Coeliac diagnosis pathway (Adults) Voice clinic Ear Wax Dermatology Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) Malignant Melanoma Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) Nipple Discharge Early Cancer Diagnostic Clinic (ECDC) Genetics Referrals Breast Infections Breast Pain Primary Care Prescribing Guidelines Emergency Department Anaesthetics and Chronic Pain Team Respiratory Referrals Chronic Cough Pathway GP Clinical Handbook Test Paediatric Bronchiolitis Early Cancer Diagnosis Clinic (ECDC) Obstetrics & Gynaecology/Medicine Admission Agreement Idiopathic Intrancranial Hypertension Urology Out of Hours Urology Out of Hours Sengstaken/Minnesota Tube for Bleeding Varices Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Transfer from Galloway Community Hospital Repatriation of Patients from Tertiary Hospitals THROMBOPROPHYLAXIS IN PREGNANCY – Appendix 1, Risk factors THROMBOPROPHYLAXIS IN PREGNANCY – Appendix 3, Postnatal assessment & management THROMBOPROPHYLAXIS IN PREGNANCY – Appendix 4 THROMBOPROPHYLAXIS IN PREGNANCY – Appendix 2, Management of women with previous VTE THROMBOPROPHYLAXIS IN PREGNANCY, LABOUR AND THE PUERPERIUM Orthopaedic VTE Risk Assessment Sodium Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors (SGLT2i) Cardiology Referrals Vascular Referrals ‘Watershed’ Conditions Myasthenia Gravis Gentamicin in Renal Replacement Therapy Vancomycin in Renal Replacement Therapy REDMAP Poster Realistic Conversations Summary Plan for Deteriorating Health Treatment Escalation Plans Ambulatory Care for Blood and/or Iron Infusion Principles for Light Touch Patients – B2 Clostridiodes difficile Infection Post Astra Zeneca Vaccine Headache Blood Culture Rhabdomyolysis Analgesia Acute Appendicitis Small Bowel Obstruction Elective Admission – Colorectal Surgery Trauma Admissions Post-operative Care Gallstone Disease Vasopressors and Inotropes/Chronotropes Shock Elective Admission – ERCP Elective Admission – Orthopaedics Laxatives Fat Embolism Compartment Syndrome Surgical Post-operative Complications Stoma Diverticular Disease High Dose Steroid Pre-Treatment Checklist Acute Surgical Admissions Level 1 CCU Medical Area Acute Oncology STEMI Thrombolysis Protocol Haemolytic Anaemia Conversion Charts Anticipatory ‘As Required’ Medications Syringe Driver Chart Scottish Palliative Care Guidelines Covid-19 Sick Day Rules for Patients with Primary Adrenal Insufficiency Diabetic Retinopathy Coming Off Benzodiazepines and “Z” Drugs Dental Abscess Facial Trauma – Mandibular Fractures Facial Trauma – Orbital Fractures Facial Trauma – Zygoma Platelet Transfusion Death Certification Parenteral Iron in Adults >18 Years OPAT SBAR (Complex Infections) Mental Health Liaison Team Referrals STEMI Admitting Patients with Tracheostomy/Laryngectomy to DGRI Emergency Laryngectomy Management Emergency Tracheostomy Management Safe Transfer of Patients with Tracheostomy/Laryngectomy within DGRI Other Tracheostomy Documents Systemic Anticancer Therapy Toxicity Haemodialysis Medication Prescribing Breaking Bad News by Telephone End of Life Diabetes Care Adrenal Insufficiency Serotonin Syndrome DGRI Referrals Confirmation of Death Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Pulmonary Embolism Deep Vein Thrombosis of Lower Extremities Exacerbation of COPD Contrast Associated AKI Acute Kidney Injury – Introduction Paracetamol Hypertensive Emergencies Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia (SAB) Rate Control in AF Common Scenarios Acute Severe Ulcerative Colitis IV Fluid Prescription in Adults Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Legionnaires Disease Septic Arthritis Guillain-Barré Syndrome Back Pain Anaesthetics – Unscheduled Procedures Requests Hyperglycaemia & Steroids Variable Rate Insulin Infusion Decompensated Liver Disease Fast Atrial Fibrillation – ACP Hyperkalaemia Contraindications to MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging Bleeding with Other Antithrombotics In-patient Hyperglycaemia Management Anaemia (Management) – ACP Suspected NSTEMI – ACP Guidance on Chaperones Compulsory Admission and Treatment Radiology Immediate Discharge Letter Alcohol Withdrawal Fentanyl Patches in the Last Days of Life Care in the Last Days of Life Low Molecular Weight Heparin Interstitial Lung Disease Haematinic Testing Thromboprophylaxis for Non-Covid Patients Lung Cancer Osteoporosis Heart Failure Fluid Replacement in AKI Death & The Procurator Fiscal Thrombophilia Screening Neutropenic Sepsis Acute Vertigo Aortic Dissection Antithrombotics in Hip Fracture Transient Global Amnesia Hypomagnesaemia Hypophosphataemia Oxygen Therapy Falls – ACP Falls Acute Asthma Oncology Contact Details & General Advice Reversal of Warfarin Lumbar Puncture, Antiplatelet & Anticoagulant Drugs Antithrombotics & Surgery Non ST Elevation MI (NSTEMI) Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome Antibiotics and the Kidney Acute Upper GI Bleeding (AUGIB) Pericardiocentesis Pleural Effusion Spontaneous Pneumothorax Acute Diarrhoea Iron Deficiency Anaemia Hyperthyroidism Gout Giant Cell Arteritis Pacemakers Clinical Suspicion PE – ACP Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Management of Urinary Symptoms Management of Acute Kidney Injury SSRI Poisoning Immobility Autopsies Indications for Echocardiography Bradycardia Suspected Meningitis Hypernatraemia Diarrhoea – ACP Suspected Meningitis – ACP Blood Transfusion Brain Tumours Newer Antidiabetic Drugs Parkinson’s Disease Major Haemorrhage Protocols (DGRI & GCH) Major Haemorrhage Stroke Thrombolysis Heart Failure – ACP Suspected Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis – ACP The AMB Score – ACP Transient Loss of Consciousness (TLOC) – ACP Bell’s Palsy – ACP Suspected Sepsis Lumbar Puncture Hypokalaemia Gentamicin Dosing Transient Loss of Consciousness Urinary Tract Infection Urethral Catheterisation Vancomycin Dosing Hyponatraemia Narrow Complex Tachycardia Hypocalcaemia New Onset Type 1 Diabetes – ACP Paracentesis for Tense Ascites – ACP Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension – ACP Other Funny Turns Hypoglycaemia Hypoglycaemia – ACP Management of Transfusion Reactions Hypercalcaemia Haematemesis – ACP Anti-Platelet Therapy in Coronary Heart Disease Unfractionated Heparin Infusion Anaemia (Investigation) – ACP Delirium Suspected Seizure – ACP Headache – ACP Community Acquired Pneumonia – ACP Cellulitis Dyspepsia Management of Acute AF Rhythm Control in AF Atrial Fibrillation Renal Transplants Massive Pulmonary Embolism Head and Neck Injury Diabetic Ketoacidosis Switching from VRII Insulin Pumps Diabetes Mellitus Aspirin Digoxin Poisoning Tricyclic Antidepressants Opiates Benzodiazepines Gut Decontamination Deliberate Self Harm Acute Liver Failure Asymptomatic Raised Transaminases (ALT & AST) Nutritional Support in Adults Refeeding Syndrome Parenteral Nutrition Crohn’s Disease Acute Pancreatitis Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Malignant Spinal Cord Compression Post Splenectomy Sepsis Ascites in Cirrhosis Alcohol Related Liver Disease Hepatitis C Symptom Control Suspected Variceal Bleeding Severe Headache Status Epilepsy in Adults Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding Functional & Social Assessment Breathlessness with Abnormal CXR Polymyalgia Rheumatica Rheumatoid Arthritis Ureteric Colic & Renal Stones Intravascular Catheter Related Blood Stream Infection Care of Vascular Access Urinary Incontinence Peritoneal Dialysis Related Peritonitis The First Seizure Hypertension Ventricular Tachycardia Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Acute Coronary Syndrome Telemetry The Diabetic Foot Subcutaneous Insulin Diabetes and Acute Coronary Syndrome Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State Multiple Sclerosis Coma
 
 
In this section Close
Home | Articles | Oncology | Lung Cancer

Lung Cancer

Last updated 3rd November 2023

Incidence

  1. Lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in the UK and worldwide, with an annual incidence of 35 000 and 1.7 million respectively.

Causes

  1. Worldwide, about three quarters of lung cancers are attributable to smoking
  2. Others are caused by occupational workplace exposure eg to asbestos, radon exposure (radon gas is created when natural radioactive uranium slowly decays in the ground under our homes and seeps to the surface) and air pollution eg diesel fumes.
  3. It is more common in men, and incidence increases with age.

Classification

  1. The two main types of lung cancer are non-small cell (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer. NSCLC accounts for 80-85% of all lung cancers.
  2. Lung cancer is currently classified using the TNM-8 system, in which the size of the primary tumour, the extent of lymph node involvement within the thorax, and the presence of extra-thoracic metastases are used to classify patients into stages

Presentation

  1. Symptoms of non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer are basically the same.
  2. Haemoptysis is the classical presentation but only occurs in 20%
  3. Other common symptoms include lingering or worsening cough, pleuritic chest pain, shortness of breath, wheeze, weakness, fatigue, loss of appetite and weight loss
  4. Patients may present with recurrent lower respiratory tract infections.
  5. With evidence of spread to lymph nodes, bone pain, brain or liver
  6. Apical tumours may present with Horner’s Syndrome (Pan Coast Tumour)
  7. SVC obstruction can cause swelling of the face, neck, upper chest, and arms.
  8. Paraneoplastic syndromes: the 2 most common are hypercalcemia with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and SIADH with small cell lung cancer

Diagnosis

  1. CXR is likely to be the initial test and should be considered for patients who have persistent symptoms (above) or thrombocytosis. A solitary pulmonary nodule is characteristic
  2. Contrast CT chest followed by bronchoscopy unless the lesion is peripheral in which case image guided biopsy preferred
  3. The primary tumor may show a wide spectrum of imaging appearances. NSCLCs can be centrally located masses, invading the mediastinum or peripherally situated lesions that invade the chest wall. Tumors can have margins which are smooth, lobulated or irregular and spiculated. They can be uniformly solid or can have central necrosis and cavitation.
  4. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is used to identify distant metastases in those eligible for radical treatment after contrast CT.
  5. If there is potential mediastinal node involvement, endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration is the optimal initial strategy for nodal sampling

Referral

  1. Patients with lung cancer or suspected lung cancer should be referred to the lung cancer MDT
  2. The MDT takes place every Monday at 1300.
  3. Deadline for referral is 1100 Friday – Click here for the Lung MDTM Referral Form
  4. The referral form should be emailed to [email protected]
  5. Please note patients will not be discussed without a formal referral
  6. A written outcome with advice will be generated following MDT discussion

Staging Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

  • Stage 1 means the cancer is small and hasn’t spread to lymph nodes or other distant organs.
  • Stage 2: Cancer is found in the lung and nearby lymph nodes.
  • Stage 3: Cancer is in the lung and lymph nodes in the middle of the chest: same side of chest (3A) or opposite side of chest/above clavicle (3B)
  • Stage 4 means the cancer has spread to the other lung, the pleura or pericardium (4A) or beyond the lung to bone, brain, liver, adrenals (4B).

Staging Small-cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)

  1. In the limited stage, cancer is found in only one lung or nearby lymph nodes on the same side of the chest.
  2. The extensive stage means cancer has spread throughout one lung,to the opposite lung, to lymph nodes on the opposite side, to the pleura, to bone marrow or to distant organs. At the time of diagnosis 2/3 patients with SCLC have extensive disease.

Treatment

  1. Patients with stage 1 or 2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are offered surgery, which may be followed by adjuvant treatment depending upon the pathological staging. Those not undergoing surgery due to patient physiology or preferences are offered radical radiotherapy
  2. Treatment for stage 3 NSCLC is complex but often includes chemoradiation or surgery followed by adjuvant treatments or chemoradiation followed by surgery
  3. Systemic treatment of patients with stage 4 NSCLC is guided by histology and predictive biomarkers
  4. People with small cell lung cancer are typically treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, with surgery being offered for selected early tumours

Outcome

  1. Outcomes are among the poorest of all tumour types, with overall five year survival of 10-20%.
  2. Survival is hugely influenced by stage at diagnosis, with five year survival varying from 92% to 0% for the earliest and latest stages respectively

Links

Content Updated by Gordon Russell