Articles
Vaccination Referrals from ED Paediatric Antimicrobial Guidance Children’s Services Resolution and Escalation Protocol Blunt Chest Wall Trauma/Rib Fractures Information for Parents Carers of Children Having Investigations in Relation to Unexplained Injuries + Consent form Bruising and Injuries in Babies and Children – Parents Leaflet Multi-Agency Protocol for Injuries to Non-Mobile Children Flowchart for children attending Galloway Community Hospital (GCH) for NAI Follow Up Skeletal Survey Flowchart for children attending DGRI for NAI Follow-Up Skeletal Survey Cognitive Function Conscious Level Kidney Biopsy Complications Parenteral Iron for Non-HD CKD Patients Fracture Management Guidelines (Paediatric) Fracture Management Guidelines (Adult) Management of Hypertension in Acute Stroke Prescribing for CAU Patients Still in ED Hypothermia Deactivation of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Myeloma Croup Care Of Burns In Scotland (COBIS) Paediatric Guidance Management of Epistaxis Sore Throat Differential Diagnosis Dizziness Differential Diagnosis Peritonsillar Abscess/Quinsy Acute Tonsillitis Acute Mastoiditis Otitis Media Otitis Externa Extravasation of IV Amiodarone WoS Paediatric Drooling and Aspiration Guideline Palliative Care – How to Refer Eating Disorders Stroke Care Warfarin Anticoagulation for AF, DVT and PE Molnupiravir MyPsych Foundation Doctors Toolkit Paediatric Febrile Neutropenia Guidance PAEDIATRIC HYPOGLYCAEMIA MANAGEMENT in NON DIABETIC CHILDREN   Paediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Guideline Child Protection Policies and Procedures (D&G) Management of Acute Behavioural Challenges in Adolescents and Young People presenting to Secondary Care Cancer of Unknown Primary Patients Returning from Interventional Cardiac Procedure Treatment of Malaria Discharging Patients on High Dose Steroids Sotrovimab Paediatric Ketone Correction Guideline Insulin Correction Factor Table (Paediatrics) Management of uncomplicated Henoch-Schonlein Purpura (HSP) in under 16s Management of Hypoglycaemia in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Newly diagnosed diabetic – not in DKA (Walking wounded) Proton Pump Inhibitor Guideline for Neonatal and Paediatrics Stroke – Post Thrombolysis Neonatal Guidelines Gentamicin Prescribing (Paediatrics) Management of Anaphylaxis (Paediatrics) Management of Prolonged Seizures (Convulsive Status Epilepticus) in Children Bronchiolitis Acute Wheeze or Asthma in Paediatrics Conscious Proning Covid-19 Basics Remdesivir Thromboprophylaxis Identifying Patients in the Highest Risk Groups Steroids for Patients with Covid-19 Infection IL-6 Inhibitors – Tocilizumab or Sarilumab Baricitinib Paxlovid (Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir) Influenza A Inhalers for Adults with Asthma Standard Operating Procedure for AMU Trigger Finger/Thumb Osteoarthritis of the Hand/Thumb Mallet Finger Ganglion Dupuytren’s Contracture De Quervain’s Tenosynovitis Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Prescribing Advice on Admission – Clozapine Prescribing Advice on Admission – Methadone/Buprenorphine Prescribing Advice on Admission – Corticosteroids Prescribing Advice on Admission – Items Not Prescribed by GP Prescribing Advice on Admission – Patients on Chemotherapy Regimes Prescribing Advice on Admission – Medication for Parkinson’s Disease Prescribing Advice on Admission – Insulin Prescribing Advice on Admission Medical Emergencies in Eating Disorders (MEED) Gentamicin & Vancomycin HIV Testing Guidelines Metabolic Syndrome Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD) Greener Inhaler Prescribing C4 Predischarge Beds Handover Safe and Secure Handling of Medicines Blood Glucose & Steroids IV Fentanyl & Morphine for Acute Pain in Adults Assessment & Management of Acute Pain Hospitalised and Has Coronavirus19 Infection (No suspected Viral Pneumonia Syndrome) Hospitalised Due to Coronavirus19 with Likely Viral Pneumonia Bi-Level NIV S/T Guidelines for CCU Phase Bi-Level NIV S/T Guidelines for ED Phase Adults With Incapacity Premenstrual Syndrome Pelvic USS Boarding Coeliac diagnosis pathway (Adults) Voice clinic Ear Wax Dermatology Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) Malignant Melanoma Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) Nipple Discharge Early Cancer Diagnostic Clinic (ECDC) Genetics Referrals Breast Infections Breast Pain Primary Care Prescribing Guidelines Emergency Department Anaesthetics and Chronic Pain Team Respiratory Referrals Chronic Cough Pathway GP Clinical Handbook Test Paediatric Bronchiolitis Early Cancer Diagnosis Clinic (ECDC) Obstetrics & Gynaecology/Medicine Admission Agreement Idiopathic Intrancranial Hypertension Urology Out of Hours Urology Out of Hours Sengstaken/Minnesota Tube for Bleeding Varices Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Transfer from Galloway Community Hospital Repatriation of Patients from Tertiary Hospitals THROMBOPROPHYLAXIS IN PREGNANCY – Appendix 1, Risk factors THROMBOPROPHYLAXIS IN PREGNANCY – Appendix 3, Postnatal assessment & management THROMBOPROPHYLAXIS IN PREGNANCY – Appendix 4 THROMBOPROPHYLAXIS IN PREGNANCY – Appendix 2, Management of women with previous VTE THROMBOPROPHYLAXIS IN PREGNANCY, LABOUR AND THE PUERPERIUM Orthopaedic VTE Risk Assessment Sodium Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors (SGLT2i) Cardiology Referrals Vascular Referrals ‘Watershed’ Conditions Myasthenia Gravis Gentamicin in Renal Replacement Therapy Vancomycin in Renal Replacement Therapy REDMAP Poster Realistic Conversations Summary Plan for Deteriorating Health Treatment Escalation Plans Ambulatory Care for Blood and/or Iron Infusion Principles for Light Touch Patients – B2 Clostridiodes difficile Infection Post Astra Zeneca Vaccine Headache Blood Culture Rhabdomyolysis Analgesia Acute Appendicitis Small Bowel Obstruction Elective Admission – Colorectal Surgery Trauma Admissions Post-operative Care Gallstone Disease Vasopressors and Inotropes/Chronotropes Shock Elective Admission – ERCP Elective Admission – Orthopaedics Laxatives Fat Embolism Compartment Syndrome Surgical Post-operative Complications Stoma Diverticular Disease High Dose Steroid Pre-Treatment Checklist Acute Surgical Admissions Level 1 CCU Medical Area Acute Oncology STEMI Thrombolysis Protocol Haemolytic Anaemia Conversion Charts Anticipatory ‘As Required’ Medications Syringe Driver Chart Scottish Palliative Care Guidelines Covid-19 Sick Day Rules for Patients with Primary Adrenal Insufficiency Diabetic Retinopathy Coming Off Benzodiazepines and “Z” Drugs Dental Abscess Facial Trauma – Mandibular Fractures Facial Trauma – Orbital Fractures Facial Trauma – Zygoma Platelet Transfusion Death Certification Parenteral Iron in Adults >18 Years OPAT SBAR (Complex Infections) Mental Health Liaison Team Referrals STEMI Admitting Patients with Tracheostomy/Laryngectomy to DGRI Emergency Laryngectomy Management Emergency Tracheostomy Management Safe Transfer of Patients with Tracheostomy/Laryngectomy within DGRI Other Tracheostomy Documents Systemic Anticancer Therapy Toxicity Haemodialysis Medication Prescribing Breaking Bad News by Telephone End of Life Diabetes Care Adrenal Insufficiency Serotonin Syndrome DGRI Referrals Confirmation of Death Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Pulmonary Embolism Deep Vein Thrombosis of Lower Extremities Exacerbation of COPD Contrast Associated AKI Acute Kidney Injury – Introduction Paracetamol Hypertensive Emergencies Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia (SAB) Rate Control in AF Common Scenarios Acute Severe Ulcerative Colitis IV Fluid Prescription in Adults Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Legionnaires Disease Septic Arthritis Guillain-Barré Syndrome Back Pain Anaesthetics – Unscheduled Procedures Requests Hyperglycaemia & Steroids Variable Rate Insulin Infusion Decompensated Liver Disease Fast Atrial Fibrillation – ACP Hyperkalaemia Contraindications to MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging Bleeding with Other Antithrombotics In-patient Hyperglycaemia Management Anaemia (Management) – ACP Suspected NSTEMI – ACP Guidance on Chaperones Compulsory Admission and Treatment Radiology Immediate Discharge Letter Alcohol Withdrawal Fentanyl Patches in the Last Days of Life Care in the Last Days of Life Low Molecular Weight Heparin Interstitial Lung Disease Haematinic Testing Thromboprophylaxis for Non-Covid Patients Lung Cancer Osteoporosis Heart Failure Fluid Replacement in AKI Death & The Procurator Fiscal Thrombophilia Screening Neutropenic Sepsis Acute Vertigo Aortic Dissection Antithrombotics in Hip Fracture Transient Global Amnesia Hypomagnesaemia Hypophosphataemia Oxygen Therapy Falls – ACP Falls Acute Asthma Oncology Contact Details & General Advice Reversal of Warfarin Lumbar Puncture, Antiplatelet & Anticoagulant Drugs Antithrombotics & Surgery Non ST Elevation MI (NSTEMI) Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome Antibiotics and the Kidney Acute Upper GI Bleeding (AUGIB) Pericardiocentesis Pleural Effusion Spontaneous Pneumothorax Acute Diarrhoea Iron Deficiency Anaemia Hyperthyroidism Gout Giant Cell Arteritis Pacemakers Clinical Suspicion PE – ACP Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Management of Urinary Symptoms Management of Acute Kidney Injury SSRI Poisoning Immobility Autopsies Indications for Echocardiography Bradycardia Suspected Meningitis Hypernatraemia Diarrhoea – ACP Suspected Meningitis – ACP Blood Transfusion Brain Tumours Newer Antidiabetic Drugs Parkinson’s Disease Major Haemorrhage Protocols (DGRI & GCH) Major Haemorrhage Stroke Thrombolysis Heart Failure – ACP Suspected Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis – ACP The AMB Score – ACP Transient Loss of Consciousness (TLOC) – ACP Bell’s Palsy – ACP Suspected Sepsis Lumbar Puncture Hypokalaemia Gentamicin Dosing Transient Loss of Consciousness Urinary Tract Infection Urethral Catheterisation Vancomycin Dosing Hyponatraemia Narrow Complex Tachycardia Hypocalcaemia New Onset Type 1 Diabetes – ACP Paracentesis for Tense Ascites – ACP Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension – ACP Other Funny Turns Hypoglycaemia Hypoglycaemia – ACP Management of Transfusion Reactions Hypercalcaemia Haematemesis – ACP Anti-Platelet Therapy in Coronary Heart Disease Unfractionated Heparin Infusion Anaemia (Investigation) – ACP Delirium Suspected Seizure – ACP Headache – ACP Community Acquired Pneumonia – ACP Cellulitis Dyspepsia Management of Acute AF Rhythm Control in AF Atrial Fibrillation Renal Transplants Massive Pulmonary Embolism Head and Neck Injury Diabetic Ketoacidosis Switching from VRII Insulin Pumps Diabetes Mellitus Aspirin Digoxin Poisoning Tricyclic Antidepressants Opiates Benzodiazepines Gut Decontamination Deliberate Self Harm Acute Liver Failure Asymptomatic Raised Transaminases (ALT & AST) Nutritional Support in Adults Refeeding Syndrome Parenteral Nutrition Crohn’s Disease Acute Pancreatitis Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Malignant Spinal Cord Compression Post Splenectomy Sepsis Ascites in Cirrhosis Alcohol Related Liver Disease Hepatitis C Symptom Control Suspected Variceal Bleeding Severe Headache Status Epilepsy in Adults Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding Functional & Social Assessment Breathlessness with Abnormal CXR Polymyalgia Rheumatica Rheumatoid Arthritis Ureteric Colic & Renal Stones Intravascular Catheter Related Blood Stream Infection Care of Vascular Access Urinary Incontinence Peritoneal Dialysis Related Peritonitis The First Seizure Hypertension Ventricular Tachycardia Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Acute Coronary Syndrome Telemetry The Diabetic Foot Subcutaneous Insulin Diabetes and Acute Coronary Syndrome Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State Multiple Sclerosis Coma
 
 
In this section Close
Home | Articles | Liver Disease | Acute Liver Failure

Acute Liver Failure

Last updated 20th March 2024

Overview

  1. Acute liver failure is a syndrome of acute liver dysfunction without underlying chronic liver disease.
  2. ALF is an uncommon condition associated with a high mortality. It is due to acute liver dysfunction in the absence of underlying chronic liver disease. ALF is characterised by coagulopathy (derangement in clotting) of hepatic origin and altered levels of consciousness due to hepatic encephalopathy (HE).
  3. The cause of ALF is numerous, but drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the most common reason in Europe. This may be divided into paracetamol or non-paracetamol DILI.
  4. The true burden of ALF is difficult to quantify, but it is the primary indication for liver transplantation in around 8% of cases within Europe

Identifying ALF

  1. ALF is characterised by the presence of coagulopathy (INR > 1.5) and HE.
  2. 2This is usually accompanied by transaminitis and hyperbilirubinaemia.
  3. ALF is usually initiated following a severe acute liver injury (ALI).

Key Terms

  1. Acute liver failure (ALF): severe acute liver injury with development of coagulopathy (INR >1.5) and hepatic encephalopathy within 28 weeks of disease onset. Further classified into hyperacute, acute and subacute (see below).
  2. Acute liver injury (ALI): severe acute liver injury from a primary liver aetiology. It is characterised by liver damage (i.e. elevated transaminases) and impaired liver function (e.g. jaundice and coagulopathy with INR > 1.5). Hepatic encephalopathy is absent.
  3. Secondary liver injury (SLI): similar to ALI but no evidence of a primary liver insult. Examples include severe sepsis or ischaemic hepatitis. Management focuses on treating the underlying disease process.
  4. The development of HE is the key differentiating factor between ALF and ALI.

Classifying ALF

  1. ALF can be divided into hyperacute, acute, and subacute based on the speed (days/weeks) at which HE develops following the onset of jaundice.
  2. Hyperacute: HE within 7 days of noticing jaundice. Best prognosis as much better chance of survival and spontaneous recovery.
  3. Acute: HE within 8-28 days of noticing jaundice
  4. Subacute: HE within 5-12 weeks of noticing jaundice (ALF may be defined up to 28 weeks). Worst prognosis as usually associated with shrunken liver and limited chance of recovery.
  5. NB. HE occurring more than 28 weeks after onset of jaundice is categorised as chronic liver disease. Usually presenting with decompensated chronic liver disease (dCLD) or acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) depending on the severity of illness

Primary Causes of ALF

  1. Viruses (A, B, E)
  2. Paracetamol
  3. Non-paracetamol medications (e.g. Statins, Carbamazepine, Ecstasy)
  4. Toxin-induced (e.g. Amanita phalloides – death cap mushroom that contains amatoxins and phallotoxins)
  5. 5Budd-chiari syndrome
  6. Pregnancy-related (e.g. fatty liver of pregnancy, HELLP syndrome)
  7. Autoimmune hepatitis
  8. Wilson’s disease

An emergency liver transplantation may be an option for these aetiologies

Secondary Causes of ALF

  1. Ischaemic hepatitis
  2. Liver resection (post-hepatectomy liver failure)
  3. Severe infection (e.g. malaria)
  4. Malignant infiltration (e.g. lymphoma)
  5. Heat stroke
  6. Haemophagocytic syndromes

An emergency liver transplantation is not an option for these aetiologies

Pathophysiology

  1. ALF is associated with significant morbidity and mortality.
  2. The exact pathophysiology of ALF depends on the underlying aetiology leading to liver dysfunction. Most cases of ALF are associated with a direct insult to the liver leading to massive hepatocyte necrosis (death of tissue) and/or apoptosis (programmed cell death), which prevents the liver from carrying out its normal function.
  3. As the condition progresses it can lead to a hyperdynamic circulatory state with low systemic vascular resistance due to a profound inflammatory response. Collectively, this causes poor peripheral perfusion and multi-organ failure. Patients also develop significant metabolic derangements (e.g. hypoglycaemia, electrolyte derangement) and are at increased risk of infection.
  4. Marked cerebral oedema occurs, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in ALF. This is thought to be due to hyperammonaemia causing cytotoxic oedema and increased cerebral blood flow that disrupts cerebral autoregulation.

Clinical Features

  1. ALF is characterised by jaundice, confusion and coagulopathy.
  2. The key clinical features in ALF are jaundice and HE. HE may manifest as confusion, altered mental status, asterixis (i.e. flapping tremor) and/or coma. Jaundice is usually obvious by looking at the skin and sclera.
  3. In patients with suspected ALI or ALF, it is essential to look for any features of chronic liver disease (e.g. spider naevi, palmar erythema, leuconychia) that may suggest the first presentation of decompensated cirrhosis rather than ALF.

Sign & Symptoms

  1. Altered mental status
  2. Confusion
  3. Asterixis: flapping tremor suggestive of HE
  4. Jaundice
  5. Right upper quadrant pain (variable)
  6. Hepatomegaly
  7. Ascites
  8. Bruising (coagulopathy)
  9. GI bleeding: haematemesis, melaena
  10. Hypotension and tachycardia: reduce systemic vascular resistance and hyperdynamic circulation
  11. Raised intracranial pressure: papilloedema, bradycardia, hypertension, low GCS

Hepatic Encephalopathy

  1. Grade I: change in behaviour with minimal change in level of consciousness. May have mild asterixis or tremor.
  2. Grade II: gross disorientation, drowsiness, asterixis and inappropriate behaviour
  3. Grade III: marked confusion, incoherent speech, sleeping most of the time but rousable to verbal stimuli. Asterixis less noticeable, elements of rigidity.
  4. Grade IV: coma that is unresponsive to verbal or painful stimuli. Evidence of decorticate or decerebrate posturing.

Diagnostic Work-up

  1. Early transfer to a transplant centre is imperative in patients with ALF.
  2. The initial work-up for a patient with suspected ALF involves formal clinical assessment alongside urgent blood tests, non-invasive liver screen and imaging.
  3. This helps to differentiate ALI from ALF (by the presence of HE), determine the aetiology, investigate for underlying cirrhosis and assess how urgently they need to be transferred to a transplant centre for further work-up.

Urgent Blood Tests Form a Key Part of the Referral Process

  1. Full blood count
  2. Urea & electrolytes
  3. Liver function tests: including conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin
  4. Bone profile
  5. Blood glucose
  6. Arterial ammonia
  7. Arterial blood gas (pH and lactate)
  8. Coagulation: urgent INR
  9. Lactate dehydrogenase
  10. Amylase: pancreatitis complication of ALF
  11. Blood cultures: sepsis is major cause of morbidity and mortality

Non-invasive Liver Screen to Determine the Aetiology

  1. Toxicology screen: serum/urine
  2. Paracetamol serum level 
  3. Autoimmune markers: ANA, autoantibodies, immunoglobulins, ANCA
  4. Viral screen:
    • Hepatitis A: anti-HAV IgM
    • Hepatitis B: HBsAg, anti-HBc IgM +/- HBV DNA levels
    • Hepatitis C: anti-HCV (unlikely to cause ALF – may be co-infected)
    • Hepatitis D: if positive for HBV 
    • Hepatitis E: anti-HEV IgM +/- HEV RNA levels
    • Other: CMV, EBV, HSV, VZV, Parvovirus

Imaging

  1. Diagnostic imaging of the liver is essential as part of the aetiological work up with doppler ultrasound to assess the patency of the hepatic and portal veins.
  2. It is also needed to look for evidence of pre-existing cirrhosis.
  3. Cross-sectional imaging of the abdomen (e.g. CT abdomen and pelvis) may be required to examine the liver architecture, volume, vascular integrity and exclude complications such as pancreatitis.

ALI Versus ALF

  1. The key differentiation between ALI and ALF is the development of HE. It is important to carefully screen for HE, which may involve clinical assessment, cognitive tests, arterial ammonia and electroencephalogram (EEG). 
  2. HE can alter consciousness and lead to coma. Therefore, patients need to be regularly reviewed and considered for early transfer to intensive care (e.g. ≥grade 2 HE) where physicians are skilled in airway management. Even subtle alterations in mental status could indicate development of life-threatening ALF within the immediate future. 

Contraindications to Transplant

  1. Patients with ALF may be considered for superurgent liver transplantation. It is therefore important to determine factors that would affect the decision to undergo transplantation.
  2. This may include previous cirrhosis, which would indicate decompensated cirrhosis rather than ALF, heavy alcohol use, significant co-morbidities (e.g. major cardiac or respiratory disease) or terminal illness (e.g. cancer). 

Transfer to Transplant Centre

  1. Early transfer to a transplant centre for specialist assessment and monitoring is critical for patients with significant ALI and ALF. This allows urgent planning and assessment if the condition deteriorates. This is key even among patients who would not be suitable for transplant as it can increase the chance of survival. 
  2. It is best for patients to be admitted to intensive care locally prior to transfer to enable a safe transfer of a critically ill patient. 

Referral Criteria Paracetamol and Hyperacute Aetiology

  1. Arterial pH: <7.30 or bicarbonate <18 mmol/L
  2. INR:  >3.0 on day 2 or >4.0 thereafter
  3. Renal: Oliguria or elevated creatinine
  4. Mental status: Altered consciousness (i.e. HE)
  5. Glucose: Hypoglycaemia
  6. Lactate: Elevated lactate unresponsive to fluid resuscitation

Referral Criteria Non-Paracetamol Aetiology

  1. Arterial pH:  <7.30 or bicarbonate <18 mmol/L
  2. INR: >1.8
  3. Renal: Oliguria or acute kidney injury
  4. Serum sodium:  < 130 mmol/L
  5. Mental status: HE
  6. Metabolic: hypoglycaemia or metabolic acidosis
  7. 7Bilirubin: >300 umol/L
  8. Imaging: Shrinking liver size

Management

  1. Patients with ALF should be managed in intensive care in a transplant centre.
  2. The overall management of ALF is complex as it involves multiple systems that each require individual managements strategies within an intensive care setting
  3. Cardiovascular: fluid resuscitation +/- use of inotropic agents (increase vascular tone and contractility)
  4. Respiratory: intubation and ventilation may be needed for HE or respiratory failure. Consider paracentesis to improve oxygenation. Chest physiotherapy. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be needed in selected patients. 
  5. Gastrointestinal: nutrition (NG feeding +/- total parenteral nutrition), gastric ulcer prophylaxis (proton pump inhibitor), and assess for pancreatitis. Manage GI bleeding as needed.
  6. Metabolic: 
    • Hypoglycaemia: maintain blood glucose level 8-11 mmol/L
    • Hyponatraemia: maintain serum sodium 140-145 mmol/L. May require hypertonic saline, improves intracerebral pressure.
    • Acidosis and lactate: used as part of transplant selection criteria
    • Hypophosphataemia: suggestive of liver regeneration, good prognostic sign. Needs correction.
  7. Renal: acute kidney injury is common. May require renal replacement therapy.
  8. Coagulopathy: imbalance in coagulation (loss of pro and anticoagulation factors with low platelets). No increased bleeding risk. Use blood products if bleeding.
  9. Sepsis: high risk of life-threatening infections including fungal. Early, aggressive treatment of infections with broad spectrum anti-microbials.
  10. Neurological: may require intubation and ventilation for high grade HE due to risk of aspiration. At risk of raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Need specific raised ICP monitoring and management.
  11. Liver: should be assessed and considered for urgent transplantation as discussed. 

Complications

  1. Sepsis due to marked immune dysfunction
  2. Progressive multi-organ failure, which includes acute kidney injury, metabolic disturbance, haemorrhage (e.g. GI Bleeding) and cerebral dysfunction (e.g. seizures, irreversible brain injury).
  3. Cerebral dysfunction is commonly the result of raised intracranial pressure.
  4. Patients are at risk of high output cardiac failure due to low vascular resistance from the widespread inflammatory response.

Outcome

  1. Survival from ALF is greater than 60%
  2. Around 55% of patients will have spontaneous recovery of their liver function without need for liver transplantation.

Updated by Zubair Arastu